Gymnastics could be a sport that features exercises requiring balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and endurance. International Gymnastics Article. The movements concerned in gymnastic exercise contribute to the event of the arms, legs, shoulders, back, chest and striated muscle teams. Alertness, precision, daring, self-assurance and self-discipline area unit mental traits that may even be developed through gymnastic exercise. gymnastic exercise evolved from exercises employed by the traditional Greeks that enclosed skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, and from circus performance skills.
Most sorts of competitive gymnastic exercise events area unit ruled by the Fédération anthem Delaware Gymnastique (FIG). every country has its own national administration (BIW) related to FIG. Competitive inventive gymnastic exercise is that the best notable of the gymnastic events. It usually involves the women’s events of the vault, uneven bars, beam, and floor exercise further because the public convenience events of floor exercise, horse, still rings, vault, bars and high bar.
Other FIG disciplines embody swinging gymnastic exercise, trampolining and tumbling, gymnastic exercise and aerobic gymnastic exercise. Disciplines not presently recognized by FIG embody wheel gymnastic exercise, aesthetic cluster gymnastic exercise, public convenience swinging gymnastic exercise, TeamGym and Barakhamba. Participants will embody kids as young as twenty months recent doing kindergym and children’s gymnastic exercise, recreational gymnasts of ages three and up, competitive gymnasts at variable levels of ability, and best athletes.
The word “gymnastics” derives from the common Greek adjective γυμνός (gymnos), by method of the connected verb γυμνάζω (gymnazo), whose that means is to “train naked”, “train in gymnastic exercise”, typically “to train, to exercise”. The verb had this that means, as a result of athletes in past exercised and competed while not vesture. It came into use within the 1570s, from Latin gymnasticus, from Greek gymnastikos “fond of or masterful in bodily exercise,” from gymnazein “to exercise or train” (see gymnasium).
Gymnastics developed in ancient Balkan state, in city and Athens, and was used as technique to organize men for warfare. In Sparta, among the activities introduced into the educational program was the Agoge or exhibition gymanstic exercise created from gymnastic parts within the type of the Pyrrhic-a dance in an exceedingly military style-performed for state dignitaries within the final year of a student’s coaching. The maneuvers were performed naked aside from the tools of war. Athens combined this a lot of physical coaching with education of the mind. At the athletic field, a education coaching center, the discipline of teaching the body and educating the mind were combined allowing a type of gymanstic exercise that was a lot of aesthetic and individual and that left behind the shape that targeted on strictness, discipline, the stress on defeating records, and concentrate on strength.
Don Francisco Amorós y Ondeano, was born on February nineteen, 1770 in Valencia and died on August eight, 1848 in Paris. He was a Spanish commissioned military officer, and also the person to introduce informative gymnastic in France. Jahn promoted the employment of gymnastic apparatus, rings and high bars in international competition.
Early 20th-century gymanstic exercise in Stockholm, Sweden
The Federation of International gymanstic exercise (FIG) was based in Liege in 1881. By the top of the nineteenth century, public lavatory gymanstic exercise competition was fashionable enough to be enclosed within the initial “modern” Olympic Games in 1896. From then on till the first Nineteen Fifties, each national and international competitions concerned a ever-changing type of exercises gathered beneath the rubric, gymnastics, that enclosed as an example, synchronic team floor exercising, rope climb, high jumping, running, and horizontal ladder. throughout the Twenties, girls organized and took part in gymanstic exercise events. the primary women’s Olympic competition was primitive, solely involving synchronic exercising and track and field. These games were control in 1928, in capital of The Netherlands.
By 1954, Olympic Games equipment and events for each men and ladies had been standardized in fashionable format, and uniform grading structures (including some extent system from one to 15) had been prescribed. At now, Soviet gymnasts astonied the planet with extremely disciplined and tough performances, setting a precedent that continues. tv has helped publicize and initiate a contemporary age of gymanstic exercise. each public lavatory and women’s gymanstic exercise currently attract tidy international interest, and glorious gymnasts will be found on each continent.
In 2006, a replacement points system for inventive gymanstic exercise was place into play. With AN A Score (or D score) being the issue score, that as of 2009 is predicated on the highest eight high marking parts in an exceedingly routine (excluding Vault). The B Score (or E Score), is that the score for execution, and is given for a way well the abilities ar performed.
See also: List of gymnastic exercise competitions and Major achievements in gymnastic exercise by the nation
The following disciplines ar ruled by FIG.
Artistic gymnastic exercise
Main article: inventive gymnastic exercise
Artistic gymnastic exercise is typically divided into public lavatory and Women’s gymnastic exercise. Men contend on six events: Floor Exercise, horse, Still Rings, Vault, gymnastic apparatus, and gymnastic apparatus, whereas girls content on four: Vault, Uneven Bars, exerciser, and Floor Exercise. In some countries, girls at just the once competed on the rings, high bar, and gymnastic apparatus (for example, within the Nineteen Fifties within the USSR).
In 2006, FIG introduced a replacement points system for inventive gymanstic exercise within which scores aren’t any longer restricted to ten points. The system is employed within the U.S.A. for elite level competition. in contrast to the previous code of points, there ar 2 separate scores, AN execution score and a problem score. within the previous system, the “execution score” was the sole score. it absolutely was and still is out of ten.00, aside from short exercises. throughout the gymnast’s performance, the judges deduct this score solely. A fall, on or off the event, is a 1.00 deduction, in elite level gymanstic exercise. The introduction of the issue score could be a important amendment. The gymnast’s issue score is predicated on what parts they perform and is subject to alter if they are doing not perform or complete all the abilities, or they are doing not connect a ability meant to be connected to a different. association bonuses ar wherever deviation happens commonest between the meant and actual issue scores, because it will be tough to attach multiple flight parts. it’s terribly onerous to attach abilitys if the primary skill isn’t performed properly. The new code of points permits the gymnasts to achieve higher scores supported the issue of the abilities they perform additionally as their execution. there’s no most score for issue, because it will keep increasing because the issue of the abilities increase.
Artistic events for girls
Piked Tsukahara vault.
Main article: Vault
In the vaulting events, gymnasts sprint down a twenty five metres (82 ft) runway, jump onto a springboard (or perform a roundoff or acrobatic feat entry onto a springboard), land momentarily inverted on the hands on the long horse or vaulting table (pre-flight segment), then propel themselves forward or backward off that platform to a bipedal landing (post-flight segment). each athlete starts at a special purpose on the vault runway counting on their height and strength. The post-flight phase could embrace one or a lot of multiple sales, somersaults, or twisting movements. A round-off entry vault, referred to as a Yurchenko, is that the commonest vault within the higher levels in gymnastic exercise. once performing arts a Yurchenko, gymnasts “round off” therefore their hand’s are on the runway whereas their feet land on the springboard. From the roundoff position, the athlete travels backward and executes a back acrobatic feat in order that the hands land on the vaulting table. The athlete then blocks off the vaulting platform into numerous twisting and/or tumble mixtures. The post-flight phase brings the athlete to her feet. within the lower levels of gymnastic exercise, the gymnasts don’t perform this move. These gymnasts can jump onto the springboard with each foot at an equivalent time and either do a front acrobatic feat onto the vault or roundoff onto the vault.
In 2001, the normal long horse was replaced with replacement equipment, typically referred to as a tongue, horse or vaulting table. The new equipment is a lot of stable, wider, and longer than the older long horse, or so one m long and one m wide, giving gymnasts a bigger interference surface. This equipment is so thought of safer than the long horse employed in the past. With the addition of this new, safer vaulting table, gymnasts are trying harder and dangerous vaults.
Gymnast on uneven bars.
Main article: Uneven bars
On the uneven bars, the athlete performs a regular routine on 2 parallel horizontal bars set at completely different heights. These bars are manufactured from fiberglass lined in wood laminate, to forestall them from breaking. within the past, bars were manufactured from wood, however, the bars were susceptible to breaking, providing AN incentive to change to newer technologies. The dimension and height of the bars could also be adjusted to the dimensions required by individual gymnasts. within the past, the uneven gymnastic apparatus were nearer along. The bars are enraptured progressively additional apart, permitting gymnasts to perform swinging, circling, transformation, and unleash moves which will skip, under, and between the 2 bars. At the Elite level, movements should tolerate the gymnastic exercise. Gymnasts typically mount the uneven bars employing a springboard or a little mat. Gymnasts could use chalk (MgCO3) and grips (an implement with holes for fingers to safeguard hands and improve performance) once performing arts this event. The chalk facilitates take the wetness out of gymnasts’ hands to decrease friction and stop rips (tears to the skin of the hands); fastening grips help gymnasts grip the bar.
Dorina Böczögő performing arts a 1 arm press hold throughout her exerciser mount, 2013.
Main article: exerciser
The athlete performs a choreographed routine of up to ninety seconds long consisting of leaps, active skills, somersaults, turns and dance parts on a soft beam. The beam is a hundred twenty-five centimeters (4 foot one in) from the bottom, five meters (16 foot five in) long, and ten centimeters (3.9 in) wide. This stationary object may also be adjusted, to be raised higher or lower. The event needs balance, flexibility, grace, poise, and strength.
Gymnast doing a stag leap on floor exercise.
Main article: Floor
The event in gymnastic exercise performed on the floor is named floor exercise. English abbreviation for the event in gymnastic exercise marking is FX. within the past, the ground exercise event was dead on the blank floor or mats like wrestling mats. the ground event currently happens on a carpeted 12m × 12m sq., typically consisting of onerous foam over a layer of plyboard, that is supported by springs typically referred to as a “spring” floor. This provides a firm surface that gives additional bounce or spring once compressed, permitting gymnasts to attain a bigger height and a softer landing when the composed ability. Gymnasts perform a choreographed routine up to ninety seconds within the floor exercise event; counting on the amount, they’ll select their own, or, if referred to as a “compulsory athlete,” default music should be vying. Levels 3 to 6 the music is that the same for every level together with the abilities inside the routine. However, recently, the amount has switched. Now, levels 6-10 ar facultative levels and that they get to own custom routines created. within the facultative levels (levels six to ten) there arability needs for the routine however the jock is in a position to choose her own music with none words. The routine ought to contain tumbling passes, series of jumps, leaps, dance parts, active skills, and turns, or pivots, on one foot. An athlete will perform up to four tumbling passes, every of that typically includes a minimum of one flight component while not hand support. every level of gymnastic exercise needs the jock to perform a special variety of tumbling passes. In level seven within u. s., an athlete is needed to try to 2–3, and in levels 8–10, a minimum of 3–4 tumbling passes are needed.
Artistic events for men
Main article: Floor
Male gymnasts additionally perform on a 12meter x 12meter spring floor. A series of tumbling passes ar performed to demonstrate flexibility, strength, and balance. Strength skills embrace circles, scales, and press handstands. public lavatory floor routines typically have multiple passes that have to be compelled to total between 60–70 seconds and are performed while not music, in contrast to the women’s event. Rules need that male gymnast’s bit every corner of the ground a minimum of once throughout their routine.
Chris Cameron on the horse
Main article: horse
A typical horse exercise involves every single leg and double leg work. Single leg skills ar typically found within the type of scissors, apart typically done on the pommels. Double leg work but, is that the main staple of this event. The athlete swings each leg in an exceedingly circular motion (clockwise or counterclockwise counting on preference) and performs such skills on all elements of the equipment. to form the exercise more difficult, gymnasts can typically embrace variations on a typical circling ability by turning (Moores and spindles) or by straddling their legs (Flares). Routines finish once the athlete performs a dismount, either by swinging his body over the horse, or landing when a gymnastic exercise variation.